By Eli D., M.D. Ehrenpreis
Even though rectal and perianal proceedings are one of the commonest visible by way of basic care physicians, surgeons, and gastroenterologists, the big variety of problems linked to those court cases are, more often than not, poorly understood. also, a number of more recent diagnostic resonance imaging, at the moment are being hired for the evaluate of those problems. eventually, new pharmacotherapies, together with immunosuppressants and topical treatments in addition to new surgical remedies, have emerged. those are defined in a transparent, undemanding demeanour.
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Extra info for Anal and Rectal Diseases Explained
Figure 3. Sigmoid colon polyp demonstrated on flexible sigmoidoscopy. Figure 4. A sessile polyp near the dentate line seen on sigmoidoscopy. Figure 5. Sigmoid diverticulosis, a common endoscopic finding. 39 Chapter 2 Additional comments In the United States, colonoscopy with visualization of the entire colon is replacing flexible sigmoidoscopy as the preferred method for screening for colon polyps and cancers. 9 Pudendal nerve terminal motor latency Description of procedure The pudendal nerve innervates the anal sphincters; therefore, pudendal nerve injury may result in sphincter dysfunction.
The internal anal sphincter appears as a dark ring surrounded by a whitish ring representing the external anal sphincter. The mucosa, submucosa, lamina propria, muscularis mucosa, and serosa of the rectum can all be visualized as separate layers. Typical abnormal findings Transanal ultrasound can be used to evaluate the anatomy of the internal and external anal sphincter. Sphincter injuries (due to obstetric damage, trauma, and prior surgeries) can be visualized (see Figure 1). Thinning and degeneration of the anal sphincters may also be seen.
After evacuation of the barium, the images of the colon are examined for mucosal abnormalities and anatomic disruptions. 22 Barium enema Typical abnormal findings Alterations of colonic anatomy such as tortuosity and increased length of the sigmoid colon in chronic constipation or loss of haustration in cases of laxative abuse. The barium enema may reveal causes of constipation, abdominal or pelvic pain, and diarrhea, such as obstructing colonic lesions, severe diverticular disease (see Figure 2), ulcerative colitis, and Crohn’s disease.
Anal and Rectal Diseases Explained by Eli D., M.D. Ehrenpreis