New PDF release: An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry

By Julian E. Andrews, Peter Brimblecombe, Tim D. Jickells, Peter S. Liss, Brian Reid

ISBN-10: 0632059052

ISBN-13: 9780632059058

This introductory textual content explains the basics of the chemistry of the typical setting and the results of mankind's actions at the earth's chemical structures. keeps an emphasis on describing how average geochemical approaches function over various scales in time and area, and the way the results of human perturbation may be measured. themes diversity from normal international concerns similar to atmospheric toxins and its influence on international warming and ozone destruction, to microbiological methods that reason toxins of consuming water deltas. comprises sections and knowledge packing containers that specify the fundamental chemistry underpinning the topic coated. every one bankruptcy includes a record of extra examining at the topic quarter. up to date case reviews. No previous chemistry wisdom required. appropriate for introductory point classes.

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Extra resources for An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry

Example text

The theory behind this behaviour is that elements with electronic structures close to those of inert (noble) gases lose or gain electrons to achieve a stable (inert) structure. 4, sodium (Na; Z = 11) loses one electron to attain the electronic structure of neon (Ne; Z = 10), while chlorine (Cl; Z = 17) gains one electron to attain the electronic structure of argon (Ar; Z = 18). The compound NaCl is formed by the transfer of one electron from sodium to chlorine and the solid is bonded by the electrostatic attraction of the donated/received electron.

It is clear from the discussion above, and by looking at the Periodic Table (Fig. 2) that some elements are classed as metals, some as semi-metals and some as non-metals. e. up the energy ramps of Fig. 1b. In essence this is because those elements with low ionization energy hold electrons loosely. In an applied electrical voltage these excited electrons will flow, conducting the electricity, whereas in non-metals there is a gap in the electron configuration that will not allow passage of excited electrons.

Semi-metals such as silicon are also known as semi-conductors, and are used in various industrial applications to speed up electrical processes, most famously as the key component of the ‘silicon chip’ in computer microprocessors. There have been many attempts to further classify the elements geologically and environmentally. In Fig. 3 we show the most abundant elements in four of the main environmental materials of the Earth. A glance at this figure shows that Atmosphere N2, O2, H2O, Ar CO2 Biosphere Lithosphere C – H O, N, P, S Rivers Oceans Alx Six O8 ± (OH) SiO2 H2O Fe, Ca, Na, K, Mg, Ti Hydrosphere Cl–, Na+, SO42–, Mg2+, Ca2+, K+, HCO3, Br – Fig.

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An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry by Julian E. Andrews, Peter Brimblecombe, Tim D. Jickells, Peter S. Liss, Brian Reid

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