By Charles E. Taylor, Jonathan T. Kwan
This e-book had its genesis in a symposium on gasoline hydrates provided on the 2003 Spring nationwide assembly of the yankee Institute of Chemical Engineers. The symposium consisted of twenty papers offered in 4 periods over days. extra visitor authors have been invited to supply continuity and canopy issues now not addressed in the course of the symposium. gasoline hydrates are a distinct category of chemical substances the place molecules of 1 compound (the visitor fabric) are enclosed, with no bonding chemically, inside an open sturdy lattice composed of one other compound (the host material). these kinds of configurations are often called clathrates. The visitor molecules, u- best friend gases, are of an acceptable measurement such that they healthy in the cage shaped by way of the host fabric. Commonexamples of fuel hydrates are carbon dioxide/water and methane/water clathrates. At typical strain and temperature, methane hydrate comprises via quantity a hundred and eighty occasions as a lot methane as hydrate. the us Geological Survey (USGS) has anticipated that there's extra natural carbon c- tained as methane hydrate than all other kinds of fossil fuels mixed. actually, methane hydrates may provide a fresh resource of power for a number of centuries. Clathrate compounds have been first chanced on within the early 1800s while Humphrey Davy and Michael Faraday have been experimenting with chlorine-water combinations.
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The first type is a performance plot, which depicts gas generation and production as a function of time. The term generation is used for the gas resulted from decomposition of hydrate, and production is used for the total gas produced from the wellbore. The second type is a distribution plot, which shows pressure and saturation as a function of radial distance or depth. The radial pressure and saturation distributions in these figures are for the grid-blocks closest to the interface between the hydrate and gas zones and the vertical ones are for the grid-blocks closest to the wellbore.
A three- phase system, consisting of the liquid, gas, and hydrate, is present. It is assumed that an excess amount of gas is available in the chamber during the whole process, and the gas volume reduction is negligible, given that the change of volume of water at different pressures is negligible and the volume occupied by the solution reacted and the hydrate formed are similar. Figure 2 shows a schematic of the processes involved during this period. , ), experimental evidence indicates that the nucleation and growth occur predominantly at the gas-liquid interface, where the super-saturation is higher than anywhere else in the liquid.
2. Mao, W. ; et al. Science, 2002, 297, 2247. 3. Sloan, E. D. Jr. Nature, 2003, 426, 353, and references therein. 4. van der Waals, J. ; and-Platteeuw, J. C. Adv. Chem. , 1959, 2, pp. 1–57. Statistical Thermodynamic Model 25 5. Davidson, D. W. ; Plenum: New York, 1973, Vol. 2, p. 115. 6. Sloan, E. D. Jr. Clathrate Hydrates of Natural Gases; Marcel Dekker: New York, 1998. 7. Dyadin, Yu. ; and Belosludov, V. R. In Comprehensive Supramolecular Chemistry; MacNicol, D. ; Pergamon: Oxford, 1996, Vol.
Advances in the Study of Gas Hydrates by Charles E. Taylor, Jonathan T. Kwan