By Gordon Martel
Beneficial compilation of essays masking the foremost occasions of the 20 th century. status out from this total striking physique of labor are the contributions at the undertones and motives of WW I (Martel's distinctiveness) and 3 chapters on often-overlooked advancements resulting in WW II.
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Extra resources for A Companion to International History 1900–2001
Perhaps Stalin’s most prescient comment, however dubious his history, on the nature of the postwar world sums up the problems faced by the Grand Alliance: [A]fter this war all States would be very nationalistic. . The feeling to live independently would be the strongest. Later, economic feelings would prevail, but in the ﬁ rst period they would be purely nationalistic and therefore groupings would be 296 WARREN F. KIMBALL unwelcome. The fact that Hitler’s regime had developed nationalism could be seen in the example of Yugoslavia where Croats, Montenegrins, Slovenes, &c.
4 Once the Soviet Union was identiﬁed as the source of the threat to the western world, the Americans fought the Cold War on the assumption that “if you are not with us, you are against us,” an assumption that ﬁgured more prominently in American society than in its western European counterparts. Ronald Reagan called the Soviet Union an “evil empire,” while the current US president, George W. ”5 Europeans invariably exhibited different ideologies and methodologies in tackling the Cold War. At the outbreak of the Cold War, France and Britain sought to achieve an independent western Europe as a “third force” by utilizing the resources of Europe’s colonial possessions in Africa and the Middle East.
This increased Moscow’s incentive to expand conventional (naval and air) capabilities, together with the building up of its nuclear arsenals. However, a militarily strong Soviet Union did not earn much respect from the Warsaw Pact countries, and its ﬁ rst job, as it turned out, was not to defend East Europe against the West but to invade Czechoslovakia in order to suppress liberalization there in August 1968. The death of the “Prague Spring” marked the decline of the legitimacy of communist rule throughout eastern Europe, while the Soviet Communist Party had lost its appeal to fellow communists in western Europe.
A Companion to International History 1900–2001 by Gordon Martel